U.S. Carbines in Germany and Austria

U.S. M1 Carbine


National Agencies Additional Info
Gendarmerie Bundespolizei Accessories Oddities
Bundesheer Zoll Training Rifles

Zoll is Austria's customs. Zoll Wache (Tariff Guard) is a uniformed armed body of officers that maintain a presence at the controlled border crossings, border frontiers, airports, and railway stations. Zoll Wache is the oldest guard in Austria, initially formed in October 1829.

During the occupation period, this agency was not armed. Within a year after the end of the occupation they were armed with U.S. Carbines and faced the challenges of maintaining border security during the Hungary uprising. Information from Professor Wolfdieter Hufnagl of Austria [author, U.S. Karabiner .30 M1 - Waffe und Zubehor] indicated Zoll Wache was initially armed with 500 U.S. M2 Carbines in early 1946.

Between 2002 and 2009 Euroarms Italia of Concesio-Brescia, Italy, sold U.S. M1 Carbines they obtained from Austria's Zoll. Their website indicates they received carbines ZW 0001 through ZW 3850. A number of these carbines are displayed on this website's Armory web page.


Zoll Wache

Configuration of the U.S. Carbines used by Zoll Wache

Zoll Wache used both U.S. M1 and M2 Carbines. Many were of late U.S. manufacture, some included carbines that had gone through the U.S. Ordnance inspection and rebuild process in the United States, having the required Ordnance rebuild markings on the left side of the stock. Of the approximate 60 U.S. carbines used by Zoll observed, all had adjustable rear sights, a barrel band with a bayonet lug, rotary safety, magazine catch capable of functioning with a 30 round magazine. Bolts were both round or flat. Each carbine was marked on the bottom of the trigger housing in large letters and numbers with the letters ZW and a 3 or 4 digit inventory number.

The stock, handguard, bolt, and other parts do not have any digits from the serial number or inventory number. A few have what appears to be two letters or numbers on top of the receiver directly to the rear of the bolt.

Zoll is the only agency known, so far, to have used a bolt on rear sight protector with rubber sides to protect the adjustable rear sight.

The slings used by Zoll were the same slings as used by the Austrian Gendarmerie. The slings were made of leather, light brown, and manufactured by Stolla Wien (Stolla of Vienna).

Proof Marks

The two carbines below were amongst those in the possession of Euroarms of Italy that had the Zoll Wache markings. The images stamped into the receiver below the serial number, from left to right, are the Austrian Bundesadler (Federal Eagle), the nitro powder proof mark with the V represented the Vienna proof house, the letters LOF which may be a date code or a code representing the reason the proof testing was done.